• World Development Report 2023 was recently released by World Bank.
  • Report is titled “Migrants, Refugees and Societies” and proposes an integrated framework to maximize development impacts of cross-border movements on both destination and origin countries and on migrants and refugees themselves.
  • It categorised migrants into four typesRefugees with skills in demand, economic migrants with skills that match with demand, distressed migrants and refugees.

Major Findings

  • About 184 million people across the world, including 37 million refugees lack citizenship in country in which they live.
  • There is 120% income gain for Indians working abroad as compared to 40% income gain through internal migration.
  • Low skilled Indian migrants, who migrated to U.S, tend to see a significant gain in their income of around 500%.
  • India-US, India-Bangladesh and India- Gulf Cooperating Council considered among the top migrant corridors.
  • The share of working-age adults will drop sharply in many countries over the next few decades e.g. Spain.
    • However, developing nations such as India are observing an increase in the number of young people.


  • The report introduces the “Match-Motive Framework,” a labour economics-based approach that emphasizes how well migrants’ skills and attributes match the needs of the destination countries.
  • Countries of destination promote migration in sectors where migrant skills are highly sought after.
  • International cooperation and multilateral efforts to strengthen the match of migrants’ skills with the needs of destination societies.
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