March 25, 2023

International Affairs

General Studies Paper 2 Context: India has concluded its eighth stint in the United Nations Security Council at the end of December 2022. What were the priorities for India at UNSC? The focus was on maritime security, terrorism, UN peacekeeping, reformed multilateralism and the Global South. India was elected Chair of three important UNSC Committees: the Taliban Sanctions Committee, Libyan Sanctions Committee and Counter­terrorism Committee. What are the important contributions of India as a UNSC member?  Maritime issues: The Prime Minister of India chaired for the first time a UNSC meeting on maritime security. India’s statement for the first time is a direct....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context: Iran and Saudi Arabia recently announced a Chinese-brokered deal to restore diplomatic relations. Iran and Saudi Arabia issues Struggle for influence: Iran and Saudi Arabia are engaged in an ongoing struggle for influence in the Middle East and other Muslim regions. The two countries have provided varying degrees of support to opposing sides in nearby conflicts, including the civil wars in Syria and Yemen; and disputes in Bahrain, Lebanon, Qatar, and Iraq. For example: In Yemen, Iran has armed and aided the Houthis, while the Saudi military launched an air war in 2015 to prevent....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context: Prime Ministers of India and Bangladesh recently inaugurated the India-Bangladesh Friendship Pipeline (IBFPL). It is the first cross-border energy pipeline between the two countries. More about the India-Bangladesh Friendship Pipeline (IBFPL) About: The entire pipeline is 131.5 km long. The pipeline runs from the Siliguri-based marketing terminal of the Numaligarh Refinery Limited (NRL)to the Parbatipur depot of Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation (BPC). Cost: The pipeline has been built at an estimated cost of ?377 crore. Bangladesh's section of the pipeline cost ?285 crore. The construction of the project started in 2018 with the help of India's grant funding. Fuel transport: It....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context: The International Criminal Court (ICC)  issued an arrest warrant for war crimes for President Vladimir Putin and a second Russian official. This is the first time that the ICC has issued an arrest warrant against one of the five permanent members of the United Nation Security Council. Why did the ICC Issue an Arrest Warrant against Putin? ICC issued an arrest warrant against Russian President Vladimir Putin for the alleged war crime of unlawfully deporting and transferring children from occupied areas of Ukraine to the Russian Federation. What is ICC? On 17 July, 1998 Rome Statute was adopted by....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context: China and India have far more common interests than differences. China and India coming together Representatives of developing countries: As two neighbouring and ancient civilisations, with a combined population of 2.8 billion, China and India are representatives of developing countries and emerging economies. Crucial period of modernisation for both: India and China are both in the process of national rejuvenation and a crucial period of modernisation where challenges need to be overcome and problems need to be solved. China’s path of modernization: China is advancing modernisation on all fronts. Here, the path to modernisation is based on China’s....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context: Two United States Senators, have introduced a bipartisan resolution in the upper chamber of Congress reiterating that the US recognises the McMahon Line as the international boundary between China and India in Arunachal Pradesh. The resolution reaffirms India’s well-known and established position that Arunachal Pradesh, which China calls ‘South Tibet’, is an integral part of India. What is the McMahon Line? The McMahon Line serves as the de facto boundary between China and India in the Eastern Sector. It specifically represents the boundary between Arunachal Pradesh and Tibet, from Bhutan in the west to Myanmar in the east. China has historically disputed the boundary and claims....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context: With India’s presidency of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) and the G-20 , its focus is also on China. What are the Focus Areas of China’s Development? Steady Growth: In 2022, China’s economy grew by 3%. China’s GDP (Gross Domestic Product)   increased to 121 trillion yuan (approximately USD 18 trillion), registering an annual growth rate of 5.2% over the past five years. People’s Well-Being: As a result of continued efforts of the past eight years, China has historically resolved absolute Poverty, with the alleviation of close to 100 million rural residents from poverty. Over 70% of the government’s expenditure....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context: Recently, the US, UK and Australia have unveiled details of their plan to create a new fleet of nuclear-powered submarines, aimed at countering China's influence in the   Indo-Pacific region. Under the AUKUS pact Australia is to get at least three nuclear-powered submarines from the US. The AUKUS agreement,which involves Australia acquiring nuclear-powered submarines with the help of the US and the UK, is being praised and criticized simultaneously. It is viewed as a means of strengthening deterrence and stability in the Indo-Pacific. However, China sees it as a dangerous alliance that the US is building in the....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context: Recently, India and the US have signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on establishing the  Semiconductor Supply chain during India – USA 5th Commercial Dialogue 2023, which can help India realize its long-nurtured dream of becoming a hub for electronic goods. The MoU seeks to establish a collaborative mechanism between the two governments on semiconductor supply chain resiliency and diversificationin view of US’s CHIPS and Science Act and India’s Semiconductor Mission.    What is the Significance of the Deal? Commercial Opportunities: The US and China are giants in chip manufacturing. So, this pact with the US to strengthen cooperation in the semiconductor sector....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context: The 5th  United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries (LDC5) concluded with adoption of the ‘Doha Political Declaration’ by the world leaders. The declaration is a key outcome of the second part of LDC5 conference held under the theme “From Potential to Prosperity” in Qatar. What are the Key Highlights of the Declaration? Doha Programme of Action: It focuses on implementing the Doha Programme of Action (DPoA),the 10-year plan to put the world’s 46 most vulnerable countries back on track to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).  DPoA for the Decade (2022-2031) was agreed upon during the first part of the....Read More

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