March 20, 2023

Social Issues

General Studies Paper 2 Context: India is expected to be the third-largest economy in the world by 2030, after the US and China. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), India's economy will grow by 6.8% compared to the US's 1.6%. Despite its economic growth, women’s participation in the country’s economy, polity and society has not kept pace. Elections in India have witnessed a striking contrast in recent times.The female voter turnout has increased in the country as the seven out of eight states that went to the polls in 2022 saw a jump in female voter turnout. Though this....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context: Consumer protection is a crucial aspect of modern economies, with the objective of safeguarding the rights of consumers against unfair trade practices and ensuring fair and efficient dispute resolution mechanisms. India, one of the world's fastest-growing economies,has made significant strides in consumer protection, with the Consumer Protection Act 2019  strengthening the legal framework for consumer rights. However, despite these policy efforts and grievance redressal mechanisms,the overall time consumed in addressing consumer grievances in India remains a challenge, with a significant backlog of pending cases. The pendency in the dispute redressal system causes mental, financial, and emotional....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context: Despite progress in closing the global gender gap overall, women and girls continue to be left behind in the digital world. More about the Digital gender gap  Meaning: It is the inequalities between men and women in terms of access to information and communications technologies. The term “digital gender gap” was coined by UN Women in 2010. Digital Equity: Digital equity on the other hand is about providing everyone with equal opportunities to use technology to improve their lives. It includes making sure that everyone has access to the internet and the skills they need to use it effectively. Data....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context: The theme for International Women’s Day 2023 is ‘DigitALL: Innovation and Technology for Gender Equality. Data on Digital Disparity: According to a UNICEF report, as many as 90% of the jobsin the world today have a digital component. These jobs, however, are available only to the digitally able, and to more men than women. According to the report, in developing countries, only 41% of women have access to the internet compared with 53% of men. Women are 20% less likely to own a smartphone and are more likely to borrow phones from a male family member. Another report by the Organization for....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context: Women from rural India are adopting clean energy-based livelihood technologies(from solar refrigerators to silk-reeling machines) to catalyse their businesses and transform women’s livelihoods at the grassroots. What is the potential of clean technologies for women’s livelihoods? A recent Council on Energy, Environment and Water study has shown that out of the 13,000 early adopters of clean tech appliances, more than 80% are women. Renewable energy­ powered technologies provide an additional advantage to women farmers and microentrepreneurs by enhancing income opportunities through mechanisation. They also free women from several gender assigned manual activities that are laborious. By 2030, India is expected to....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context: Only 4 per cent(just 1 in 4 children)of children aged 0-15 years are shielded by social protection, leaving the remaining 73.6 per cent exposed to poverty, exclusion and multidimensional deprivations, noted a new United Nations (UN) report titled – More than a billion reasons: The urgent need to build universal social protection for children. Need for Social Protection: Social protection policies are powerful tools for alleviating poverty for children and their families at risk of falling into poverty and helping all children deprived of key services. Social protection can also shield children from other major risks, such as child labour   and forced labour.....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context: Recently, there were allegations of sexual harassment against higher authorities by some women sportspersons. What are the reasons behind sexual harassment of women at workplace? Sexual harassment at the workplace, is both direct and structural. The enabling environment for reporting direct violence has shown a gradual improvement. But, indirect violence remains poorly addressed. It is embedded deep in our social and economic structures. It is more visible in the employment imbalance prevalent between men and women. More men at the workplace feel entitled to take undue advantage of the historical fact that the society is still patriarchal and women occupy a few....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context:  There is vast scope for improvement in the Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY). POSHAN Abhiyan and PMMVY are India’s initiatives to fulfill its commitment towards the Sustainable Development Goal of improving maternal health. However, targets can be achieved only if we revisit the design and implementation of this scheme. What are the issues? Unchanged targets: The target of the scheme has remained unchanged over the years. The estimated eligible population of pregnant and lactating mothers in India was 128.7 lakh for 2017-18 according to the Centre for Policy Research 2019-20). The target set by the....Read More

Youth and health

General Studies Paper 2 The youth constitute nearly half of India’s population. Youth contribute to the economic growth of the country as it is the most productive age group being employed. Much of the economic growth potential of India is derived from the vibrant and highly skilled youth population in the country. Youth face a lot of health issues because of their physiological state, behaviours, diet, work and other factors, many of which are related to their behavioural habits. Youth Health Issues Mental Health: Clinical depression has been one of the leading causes of illness and disability among young adults....Read More

General Studies Paper 2 Context: Mental disorders are now among the top leading causes of health burden worldwide, with no evidence of global reduction since 1990. Suicides rates in India are amongst the highest when compared to other countries at the same socio-economic level. The latest survey by India’s National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) found that nearly 150 million Indians are in need of mental healthcare services, but fewer than 30 million are seeking care. This shows several issues with mental healthcare in India including access and social attitude to mental health. The Government has taken several....Read More

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