April 2, 2023

Science and Technology

General Studies Paper 3 Context: Few months after the formal launch of commercial 5G service, India is set to commit resources to the development of 6G technologies with the release of a vision document and the inauguration of a 6G testbed for research & development (R&D). What are some facts about 6G technology? 6G will be100 times faster than 5G. It will have multiple applications. The 6G network could enable a host of autonomous cars to talk to one another in real time as they navigate crowded urban landscapes. Virtual reality without lags could become a reality. Edge computing, where AI is deployed....Read More

General Studies Paper 3 Context: OpenAI has announced GPT4, the latest version of its large language model that powers key applications like ChatGPT and the new Bing. What is ChatGPT? ChatGPT is an artificial-intelligence chatbot developed by San Francisco-based AI research company OpenAI in 2022. It is a trained modelwhich interacts in a conversational way. The dialogue format makes it possible to answer followup questions, admit its mistakes, challenge incorrect premises, and reject inappropriate requests. It can have conversations on topics from history to philosophy, generate lyrics and suggest edits to computer programming code. Technology Used The technology that underlies ChatGPT is referenced in the second half of its....Read More

General Studies Paper 3 Context: All cars in showrooms have to be E20 compliant from April this year. This means that cars should be able to run with 20 percent ethanol blended petrol. How much ethanol blending has been achieved by India? India had already crossed the 10 percent ethanol blended petrol and according to the National Policy on Biofuels, India could hit the 20 percent mark by 2025. India is the world’s fifth-largest producer of ethanol after the US, Brazil, the European Union (EU) and China. What is the major concern associated with ethanol production and how has the....Read More

General Studies Paper 3 Context: Since its release, ChatGPT has received a lot of attention. While, the users are marvelling at its ‘human-like’ responses, technology experts are debating the potential applications and concerns associated with Generative AI (Artificial IntellIgence). Generative AI has the potential to revolutionise almost every field of human activity. However, the possibility of misuse of the technology and loss of skilled and semi-skilled jobs has prompted calls for more cautious approach in the development of the Generative AI. WHAT IS GENERATIVE AI? Generative AI uses Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning algorithms to enable machines to generate new content (machine generated).....Read More

General Studies Paper 3 Context: Artificial intelligence (AI) programs involving Natural Language Processing (NLP) have caused a shift in the way people use web searches. AI-driven search engines may lead to radical changes in the way search is monetised via advertising, and it could challenge Google’s dominant search engine. What is ChatGPT? ChatGPT is an AI-powered chatbot developed by the AI startup Open AI. The technology functions by leveraging extensive data to learn how to respond to user prompt in a human-like manner, providing information similar to a search engine.  What is a Chatbot? A chatbot is a software that simulates human-like conversations with....Read More



General Studies Paper 3 Context:  India’s nuclear power capacity experienced a significant increase. By 2021-22, it had risen to 47,112 Million Units. In 2017, the government gave simultaneous approval for 11 indigenous pressurised heavy water reactors with a total capacity of 7,000 MegaWatts. What is the Status of India’s Nuclear Energy? Nuclear energy is the fifth-largest source of electricity for India which contributes about 3% of the total electricity generation in the country. India has over 22 nuclear reactors in 7 powerplants across the country which produces 6780 MW of nuclear power. In addition, one reactor,   Kakrapar Atomic Power Project (KAPP-3) has also been connected to the grid in....Read More

General Studies Paper 3 Context: Just Energy Transition Partnership (JET-P)is emerging as the key mechanism for multilateral financing by developed countries to support an energy transition in developing countries. This has taken on particular significance following the insertion of the phrase ‘phase-down’ of coal in the Glasgow Pact. After South Africa, Indonesia, and Vietnam, India is considered the next candidate for a JET-Partnership and India’s G-20 presidency could potentially be an opportune moment to forge a deal. However, India must develop a coherent domestic Just Energy Transition (JET) strategy in order to negotiate a financing deal that addresses its unique set....Read More

General Studies Paper 3 Context: India has been aggressively pushing towards a more sustainable future by investing heavily in renewable energy sources,with solar energy at the forefront of its efforts. The Government of India has set the target to expand India’s renewable energy installed capacity to 500 GW by 2030. India has promised to source nearly half its energy from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030 and, in the shorter term, source at least 60% of its renewable energy from solar power. India is committed to reducing the country's dependence on fossil fuels  and transitioning towards a greener future, and the growth of the....Read More

General Studies Paper 3 Context: As per a new study, researchers are examining the fortress wall of Xi’an, an ancient city in China, by using tiny outer space particles called muons that can penetrate hundreds of metres of stone surfaces. What are Muons? Muons are subatomic particles raining from space. They are created when the particles in Earth’s atmosphere collide with cosmic rays — clusters of high-energy particles that move through space at just below the speed of light. According to Scientific American magazine, about 10,000 muons reach every square metre of the Earth’s surface a minute. Features:Muons resemble electrons....Read More

General Studies Paper 3 Context: Joshimath land subsidence has raised concerns over the hydropower projects in Himalayas. Hydropower: It is a renewable source of energy. It is often considered green energy because it generates electricity from the natural flow of water without releasing any emissions. It does not rely on fossil fuels.However, it also brings concerns and threats to the environment, especially in the Himalayan region. Concerns with the Hydropower projects: Most countries in the Himalayan region, including India have built or are planning to build hydropower projects in the Himalaya. The Indian government has identified hydropower as a key renewable energy source.....Read More

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