Type 1 Diabetes

  • The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) has written to all States and Union Territories, suggesting that children with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) are provided with proper care and required facilities.

 

About T1D-

  • T1D is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, which is a hormone needed to regulate blood sugar levels. This type of diabetes usually occurs in children and young adults, although it can occur at any age.
  • According to data from the International Diabetes Federation Atlas 2021, India has the world’s highest number of children and adolescents living with Type I Diabetes Mellitus (TIDM), at over 2.4 lakh, in the southeast Asia region.
  • It is an autoimmune disorder, which means that the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. The exact cause of this condition is not known, but genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role.
  • Type 1 diabetes typically require insulin injections or an insulin pump to manage the blood sugar levels.
  • Complications of type 1 diabetes in children can include hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), ketoacidosis (a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when the body breaks down fat for energy instead of glucose), and long-term complications such as eye, kidney, nerve, and cardiovascular damage.

Other Types of Diabetes

  • Type 2 Diabetes:
    • It affects the way the body uses insulin. While the body still makes insulin, unlike in type I, the cells in the body do not respond to it as effectively as they once did.
    • Type 2 diabetes can occur at any age, even during childhood. However, this type of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people.
    • This is the most common type of diabetes and it has strong links with obesity.
  • Gestational Diabetes:
    • This type occurs in women during pregnancy when the body sometimes becomes less sensitive to insulin.

Gestational diabetes does not occur in all women and usually resolves after giving birth.

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