November 30, 2023


India has approved the ratification of the Kigali Agreement to the Montreal Protocol in order to phase down Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

What does it mean for India?

India now requires reducing its HFCs usage by 80% by 2047. China and the US have to achieve the same in 2045 and 2034.


  • Experts note that, India has exemplified its climate leadership by approving the ratification process.
  • Under the ratification, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) will be phased down early which in turn will make the Indian industry globally competitive across the climate-friendly cooling products.
  • Ratification provided big opportunity to India to be on course of early phase down of HFCs by means of domestic innovation.
  • Phase-down of HFCs is going to prevent emission of up to 105 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent of greenhouse gases. Thus, it will help in avoiding up to 0.5 degrees Celsius of global temperature increase by 2100 and will also help in protecting the ozone layer.
  • India is the first country that launched a cooling action plan in 2019.

Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol

It is an international agreement that seeks to gradually reduce consumption and production of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). This is a legally binding agreement that has been designed to create rights and obligations in international law.


Montreal Protocol was originally created in order to preserve and restore the ozone layer. Protocol was an agreement in between participating countries in order to do away with ozone depleting gases. Under the agreement, HFCs were used to replace the banned substances as they have zero impact on the ozone. But HFCs are powerful greenhouse gases that contributes towards climate change. Thus, Kigali amendment added HFCs to the list of chemicals that countries are required to phase out.

Which countries have ratified this amendment?

121 states and the European Union have ratified the Kigali Amendment as of July 2021. India is the new entrant to the list. US has not ratified the amendment but pledged in April 2021 to do so.

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