May 26, 2024
  • ISRO tests ‘Made-in-India’ 3D-printed rocket engine PS4 which involves layer-by-layer material addition to create objects from digital models, allowing for complex designs and efficient material usage.
  • The PS4 engine plays a critical role in accurately deploying payloads into their intended orbits aboard the PSLV.
  • ISRO has employed Laser Powder Bed Fusion technique to redesign the PS4 engine.
  • The PS4 stage is the fourth and the topmost stage of the PSLV rocket featuring two liquid engines.
    • Each engine can produce 3 kiloNewtons (kN) of thrust in vacuum conditions, achieving a combined total of 14.6 kN.
  • The engine uses the earth-storable bipropellant combinations of Nitrogen Tetroxide as oxidizer and Mono Methyl Hydrazine as fuel in pressure-fed mode and was developed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), ISRO.


  • PS4 Engine Reimagined with 3-D Printing Technology.
  • The engine was manufactured by WIPRO 3D, an Indian company and underwent hot testing at the ISRO Propulsion Complex at Mahendragiri.

WIPRO 3D is a leading provider of metal additive manufacturing solutions and services.

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