- India Meteorological Department (IMD) has predicted that country as a whole is likely to receive 96% of Long Period Average (LPA) for southwest monsoon from June to September 2023.
- LPA of rainfall is the precipitation recorded over a particular region for a given interval (like a month or season) average over a long period like 30 years or 50 years.
- In last four years (2019 to 2022), India has received normal to above normal rainfall.
- IMD’s forecast considers following three factors that affects Indian monsoon
- El Nino: it is associated with diminished rainfall in India.
- Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD): IOD refers to the difference in sea-surface temperatures in Eastern and Western parts of Indian Ocean.
- Positive IOD is considered good for Indian monsoon.
- Snow Cover: Winter and spring snow cover extent over Northern Hemisphere and Eurasia has a general inverse relationship with subsequent summer monsoon rainfall.
Category of Rainfall
- Deficient < 90% of LPA
- Below Normal 90 – 95% of LPA
- Normal 96 -104 % of LPA
- Above Normal 105 -110% of LPA
- Excess > 110% of LPA
About El Nino Southern Oscillation
- El Nino is warm phase of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), where unusual warming of surface waters in eastern tropical Pacific Ocean occurs.
- La Nina is cool phase of ENSO, and since 2019, India has been under influence of the La Nina, getting substantial monsoon rains.
About India Meteorological Department (IMD)
- It is an agency of the Ministry of Earth Sciences.
- It is the principal agency responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting and seismology.
- It is also one of the six Regional Specialised Meteorological Centres of the World Meteorological Organisation.
- IMD releases the long range forecast in two stages in April and June.