November 30, 2023

Syllabus: General Studies Paper 2 (social justice)


Union ministry of education released the report of all india survey on higher education 2019-20.

Important facts:

  1. This report is the 10th in the series of all india survey on higher education (aishe)annually released by the department of higher education.
  2. In the last five years from 2015-16 to 2019-20, there has been a growth of 11.4% in student enrolment.
  3. The rise in female enrolment in higher education during the period is 18.2%.
  4. The government is giving continuous focus on education of girls, women empowerment and empowerment of socially backward classes;
    1. Which are well reflected by the increased participation of women, scs and sts population in higher education as shown by the report.
  5. Aishe findings are based on the responses of 1,019 universities, 39,955 colleges and 9,599 standalone institutions.
    1. In 2019-20:
      1. Universities:1,043(2%);
      2. Colleges: 42,343(77%) and
  • Stand-alone institutions: 11,779(21%).

Important features of all india survey on higher education report:

  • Total enrolment in higher education stands at85 crores in 2019-20as compared to 3.74 crores in 2018-19, registering a growth of 11.36 lakh (3.04 %).
    • Total enrollment was 3.42 crore in 2014-15.
  • Gross enrolment ratio(ger), the percentage of students belonging to the eligible age group enrolled in higher education, in 2019-20 is 27.1% against 26.3% in 2018-19 and 24.3% in 2014-2015.
    • A significant portion of this change comesfrom the female side.
    • The ger for men has gone up from 25.4% to 26.9% over the last five years and the increase is much sharper for women i.e., from 23.5% in 2015-16 to 27.3% in 2019-20.
    • The ger is a statistical measure for determining the number of students enrolled in undergraduate, postgraduate and research-level studies within the country and expressed as a percentage of the population in the 18-23 years age group.
  • Gender parity index (gpi)in higher education in 2019-20 is 1.01 against 1.00 in 2018-19 indicating an improvement in the relative access to higher education for females of eligible age group compared to males.
    • There are as many women as there are men enrolled in the bachelor of commerce ( programme.
    • This is the third major programme in the last five years where the gender gap in enrolment has closed after it happened in and mbbs programmes in 2017-18.
    • The gender composition of student enrolmentin male-dominated programmes is changing rapidly with more and more women entering higher education.
  • Pupil-teacher ratioin higher education in 2019-20 is 26.
  • 38 crore students enrolled in programmes at under-graduate and post-graduate level.  Out of these, nearly 85% of the students (2.85 crores) were enrolled in the six major disciplines such as humanities, science, commerce, engineering & technology, medical science and it & computer.
  • The number of students pursuing phd in 2019-20 is 2.03 lakh against 1.17 lakh in 2014-15.
    • The number of phds has increased by 60 per cent in the last five years.
    • The share of phd student:
      • State public universities with 29.8 per cent
      • Institutes of national importance (inis) (23.2 per cent),
      • Deemed-to-be private universities (13.9 per cent) and
      • Central universities (13.6 per cent).
    • At the phd level, the maximum numbers of students are enrolled in engineering and technology stream followed by science.
      • The engineering and technology stream is divided into 19 sub-streams with a total number of 52478 students enrolled for phd and 1.77 lakh students at pg level.
      • Computer engineering has the highest number of 7682 students enrolled for phd with 57.7 per cent male students.
    • There are 5023 students enrolled in phd in foreign languages.
    • Theforeign language stream is divided into five parts and english is at the top of the list.
  • The total number of teachers stands at 15, 03,156 comprising 57.5% male and 42.5% female.

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