• Recently Bye Elections to the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Council held by the members of Legislative Assembly (MLAs).

About Legislative Councils

  • India has a bicameral system of legislature.
    • However, bicameralism at state level is optional.
    • Currently, only 6 out of 28 states have a Legislative CouncilAndhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana, Maharashtra, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh.
  • At the state level, the equivalent of the Lok Sabha is the Vidhan Sabha or Legislative Assembly; that of the Rajya Sabha is the Vidhan Parishad or Legislative Council.
  • Creation/abolition of legislative council:
    • Under Article 168, states can have either one or two Houses of legislature.
    • Article 169 leaves the choice of having a Vidhan Parishad to individual states.
    • Art 169 of the Constitution provides for the abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States.


  • To set up the council, the legislative assembly of state must pass a resolution by a majority of total membership & not less than 2/3rd of the members of the assembly present & voting.
  • However, such a resolution passed by legislative assembly of state is not binding on the Parliament.
    • It may or may not approve the resolution with simple majority.
  • It is not be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of Article 368.


  • Under Article 171 of the Constitution, the Legislative Council of a state shall not have more than one-third of the total number of MLAs of the state, and not less than 40 members.
  • All the members of the Legislative Council are either indirectly elected or nominated by the Governor.
  • One-third of the MLCs are elected by the state’s MLAs.
  • Another 1/3rd by a special electorate comprising sitting members of local governments such as municipalities and district boards,
  • 1/12th by an electorate of teachers and another 1/12th by registered graduates.
  • The remaining 1/6th members are appointed by the Governor for distinguished services in various fields namely, literature, science, art, cooperative movement and social service.
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