WHY IN NEWS?
The Navies from Australia and India have commenced the bilateral maritime exercise named Exercise
About Exercise AUSINDEX
AUSINDEX is a bilateral maritime exercise between India and Australian Navies. It was started in the year 2015. This is the fourth edition of the exercise.
Aim: To provide an opportunity for both Navies to further bolster interoperability, gain from best practices and develop a common understanding of procedures for Maritime Security Operations.
From India, Indian Naval Ships Shivalik and Kadmatt are participating in the exercise.
WHY IN NEWS?
Chandigarh has got its first pollen calendar. This can identify potential allergy triggers and provide a clear understanding for clinicians as well as allergy sufferers about their causes to help limit their exposure during high pollen loads.
What is Pollen?
Pollen is a fine yellowish powder released by plants. They are essential for the sexual reproduction of flowering plants and plants that produce cones. Each pollen grain contains male gametes necessary for fertilisation.
Pollen and Allergies
Pollen produced by plants are considered major outdoor airborne allergens responsible for allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis in humans.
In India, about 20-30% of the population suffers from allergic rhinitis/hay fever and approximately 15% develop asthma.
What are Pollen Calendars?
Pollen calendars represent the time dynamics of airborne pollen taxa in graphical form in a particular geographical area.
They yield readily accessible visual details about various airborne pollen taxa present throughout the year, with their seasonality in a single picture. They are also location-specific, with concentrations closely related to locally distributed flora.
What is the significance of Pollen Calendars?
Pollen Calendars will help prepare early advisories and disseminate them through media channels to the citizens so that they can use protective gear during the period when the concentration of allergic pollen will be high.
It is also a preventive tool for sensitive people to diminish exposure when the levels of aero-pollen are high during specific periods
WHY IN NEWS?
Atlas of Mortality and Economic Losses from Weather, Climate and Water Extremes (1970-2019) was released by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
Wider economic cost
As per catastrophe and risk modelling group AIR, wider economic cost comprises of an estimated hit to insurers of between $17bn and $25bn. This will cover the damage from wind & storm surge and it will pay out to repair cars, residential property, and commercial as well as industrial property. However, it does not include insurance claims that will come from the heavy rains and flooding caused by Ida.
What has led to increase in frequency of extreme weather events?
Frequency and severity of extreme weather events, including wildfires, across southern Europe, Siberia & the US and flooding in northern Europe, has increased due to global warming.
WHY IN NEWS?
Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft of India has completed more than 9,000 orbits around the Moon. Imaging and other scientific instruments on the aircraft have been providing excellent useful data since then
Lunar Science Workshop 2021
Lunar Science Workshop 2021 is a two-day workshop, organised by Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The workshop started on September 6, 2021. It was organised to commemorate the completion of two years of operation of Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft across the moon’s orbit. The workshop was live-streamed on ISRO’s website and Facebook page to effectively reach the students, academia and institutes.
Two Years of Chandrayaan-2
It is the second lunar exploration mission by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), after Chandrayaan-1. It comprises of indigenously developed lunar orbiter, Vikram lander and Pragyan lunar rover. Mission was launched with the objective of mapping and study the variations in lunar surface composition, location and abundance of lunar water.
Launch of Chandrayaan-2
Chandrayaan-2 was launched to the Moon on July 22, 2019 by a GSLV Mark III-M1. It reached to the Moon’s orbit on August 20, 2019. It started the orbital positioning manoeuvres to land the Vikram lander. The lander and rover were scheduled to land on near side of the Moon, in the south polar region and conduct research for one lunar day. However, lander crashed after deviating from its intended trajectory. Its successful soft landing would have made India the fourth country to do so following the successful launch of Luna 9 by Soviet Union, Surveyor 1 by United States and Chang’e 3 by China.
WHY IN NEWS?
Tamil Nadu government has decided to celebrate the birth anniversary of reformist leader E V Ramasamy Periyar “Social Justice Day”.
How this day will be celebrated?
Every year, on September 17, employees in all government offices and State Secretariat will take pledges to follow values on the basis of such lofty ideals comprising of equality, brotherhood, self-respect and rationalism.
Contribution of E V Periyar
According to the Chief Minister, services of Periyar to the Tamil society were significant and instrumental in the enactment of first Constitutional Amendment Act, which safeguarded reservation for backward classes.
Erode Venkatappa Ramasamy Periyar (EV Ramasamy Periyar)
He was commonly known as Periyar or Thanthai Periyar. He was an Indian social activist and politician. He started Self-Respect Movement and Dravidar Kazhagam and is known as the ‘Father of the Dravidian movement’. He rebelled against the Brahmanical dominance as well as gender & caste inequality in Tamil Nadu.
Periyar and INC
E.V. Ramasamy joined the Indian National Congress (INC) in 1919, but resigned in 1925 after he realised that INC was only serving the interests of Brahmins. In 1924, he participated in non-violent agitation (satyagraha) at Vaikom, Travancore. He became the head of the Justice Party in 1939 and changed its name to Dravidar Kazhagam in 1944
WHY IN NEWS?
According to a new red list by IUCN, world’s sharks and rays have been witnessing declines in their populations since 2014 and are now threatened with extinction.
Can we recover their population?
IUCN highlighted that, progress can be made towards reviving tuna populations and other species, if states and other actors take right actions.
IUCN Red List Unit
The red list by IUCN reassesses hundreds of species each year. Out of 138,000 species that were tracked, more than 38,000 are threatened with extinction. Many of the planet’s ecosystems are mainly strained by global warming, deforestation, pollution, habitat degradation and other threats.
Declining bird population
More than half of the bird of prey species are reducing in population worldwide. 18 species are critically endangered. Warming temperatures and melting ice will reduce the emperor penguin colonies by 70 % by 2050 and 98% by 2100.
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
IUCN is an international organization that works in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. Its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects research, advocacy, field projects, and education. It was established in 1948.
WHY IN NEWS?
Environment ministry and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) seeks to achieve 20-30 percent reduction in particulate matter (PM10 as well as PM2.5) concentrations in India by 2024.
How India will achieve its target?
In order to achieve the target, India has prepared and is implementing city-specific action plans to improve air quality in 132 NACs/Million Plus Cities. It targets city-specific air polluting sources like soil & road dust, vehicles, MSW burning, domestic fuel, construction material and industries.
About PRANA Portal
PRANA portal will help in tracking physical and financial status of city air action plan implementation. It will also disseminate information on air quality to the public.
India–Japan High Level Policy Dialogue
Indian Environment minister and Japanese Environment Minister Koizumi Shinjiro also held first ever India-Japan High level policy dialogue. They discussed issues related to air pollution, climate change, sustainable technologies & transport, marine litter, fluorocarbons and COP-26. India and Japan are also strengthening bilateral cooperation on circular economy & resource efficiency, green hydrogen, low carbon technology etc.
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