Which of the following personalities has called India as an ‘Ethnological Museum’?
In 1871, V.A. Smith called India as an ‘Ethnological Museum’. This was because he felt that the country was so rich in culture and history, and that it would be a valuable resource for future generations.
Consider the following statements:
1. The positive discrimination and affirmative actions helped the Indian Government in safeguarding the rights of minorities.
2. The feeling of superiority of particular class, religion, caste has always led to enrichment of diversity in India.
3. The Unity in Diversity in India is a result of existence of tolerant society due to its historical background.
Choose the correct answer:
- Statement 1 is correct: The Indian government has implemented various policies and affirmative actions, such as reservations in education and employment, to promote social and economic equity for marginalized and minority communities. These efforts are aimed at safeguarding their rights and ensuring their inclusion in various aspects of society.
- Statement 2 is incorrect: The feeling of superiority or the practice of discrimination based on factors like religion, caste, or class can pose a threat to the diversity and social harmony of India. Such attitudes can lead to social tensions, conflicts, and a lack of inclusivity, which goes against the spirit of India’s unity in diversity.
- Statement 3 is correct: India’s historical background of interacting civilizations, religions, and cultures has contributed to the development of a tolerant and diverse society. Over the centuries, India has been a melting pot of various influences, and the coexistence of different communities has shaped a sense of unity in diversity. This historical context has fostered a spirit of tolerance and mutual understanding among different groups.
Arrange the following languages from highest speakers to the lowest speakers in accordance with 2011 census.
- Hindi – 52.83 crore speakers. In 2001, 41.03% of the people speak Hindi as mother tongue, while in 2011 it is increased to 43.63%.
- Bengali – 9.72 crore speakers, i.e., 8.03 percent of the total population.
- Marathi – 8.30 crore speakers, which is 6.86 percent of the total population.
- Telugu – 8.11 crore speakers.
- Tamil – 6.90 crore speakers
Which of the following statements are incorrect?
1. The Equality of Status and of opportunity is explicitly mentioned in the Preamble, Fundamental Rights and DPSPs.
2. In India, the Political and economic equality is quintessential for achieving Social Equality.
3. The Sapta Kranti principle of Socialism was given by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
4. The Fundamental Rights and DPSPs have been instrumental in promoting political, social and economic equality.
- Statement 1 is incorrect: The Equality of Status and of opportunity is explicitly mentioned in the Preamble not in Fundamental Rights and DPSPs. While the concept of equality is indeed mentioned in the Fundamental Rights and DPSPs, the phrase “Equality of Status and of opportunity” is not explicitly mentioned. It is a general principle implied from various provisions.
- Statement 2 is correct: Political and economic equality are important factors that contribute to achieving social equality. Without political and economic empowerment, marginalized groups may not have the ability to participate equally in society and access opportunities. Social equality is often interconnected with political and economic empowerment. So, In India, the Political and economic equality is quintessential for achieving Social Equality
- Statement 3 is incorrect: Rammanohar Lohia has given the Sapta Kranti principle of Socialism. The eminent socialist thinker Rammanohar Lohia, identified five kinds of inequalities that need to be fought against simultaneously: inequality between man and woman, inequality based on skin colour, caste-based inequality, colonial rule of some countries over others, and, of course, economic inequality. Afterwards, he added two more revolutions to this list : revolution for civil liberties against unjust encroachments on private life and revolution for non-violence, for renunciation of weapons in favour of Satyagraha. These were the seven revolutions or Sapta Kranti which for Lohia was the ideal of socialism.
- Statement 4 is correct: Both Fundamental Rights and DPSPs have played an important role in promoting different aspects of equality in India. These principles and rights aim to create a just and equitable society.
The First Country which has allowed the women to vote is
- New Zealand is the first country to allow women to vote (1893).
- Voting rights to women were given in 1918 and 1920 in the UK and USA respectively
Consider the different viewpoints on Equality:
1. Socialism opposed the ideas of inequality, concentration of wealth, and government regulation in economy of India.
2. Liberalism believes in individual rights and freedom.
3. According to feminists, inequality between men and women in society is the result of patriarchy not of the biological difference between men and women.
Which of the viewpoints given above is/are correct?
- Statement 1 is incorrect: Socialism does indeed oppose inequality and the concentration of wealth, but it generally advocates for government regulation and intervention in the economy to address these issues. Socialism believes in collective ownership or control of resources and aims to reduce economic disparities through government policies.
- Statement 2 is incorrect: Liberals do not believe that political, economic and social inequalities are necessarily linked. Liberalism emphasizes individual rights and freedoms, and it does not necessarily believe that political, economic, and social inequalities are intrinsically linked. Liberals may support political equality while accepting certain levels of economic and social inequalities as long as they do not lead to undue concentration of power.
- Statement 3 is correct: Feminism is a political doctrine of equal rights for women and men. According to feminists, inequality between men and women in society is the result of patriarchy. This term refers to a social, economic and cultural system that values men more than women and gives men power over women.
Which of the following personalities has coined the phrase, “unity in diversity” to describe the India?
In his book The Discovery of India Jawaharlal Nehru says that Indian unity is not something imposed from the outside but rather, “It was something deeper and within its fold, the widest tolerance of belief and custom was practised and every variety acknowledged and even encouraged.” It was Nehru, who coined the phrase, “unity in diversity” to describe the country.
Which of the following statements are correct?
1. Prejudice means to judge other people but not necessarily in a negative manner.
2. Sometimes prejudices or stereotypes leads to discrimination between people or groups.
3. The economic backgrounds of individual or groups is also a form of diversity.
4. The Diversity can also become the source of discrimination.
- Statement 1 is incorrect: Prejudice means to judge other people negatively or see them as inferior.
- Statement 2 is correct: Discrimination happens when people act on their prejudices or stereotypes.
- Statement 3 is incorrect: The economic backgrounds of individual or groups is not a form of diversity but of inequality.
- Statement 4 is correct: The diversity can also be a source of discrimination. Groups of people who may speak a certain language, follow a particular religion, live in specific regions etc., may be discriminated against as their customs or practices may be seen as inferior.
Which of the following statement/s is/are true about the provisions of equality mentioned in the Constitution?
1. Every person is equal before the law.
2. No person can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, race, caste, place of birth or whether they are female or male.
3. Accessibility of all public places including playgrounds, hotels, shops and markets to every person.
4. The Untouchability has been abolished.
- Statement 1 is correct: Every person is equal before the law. It means that every person, from the President of the country to a domestic worker, has to obey the same laws.
- Statement 2 is correct: No person can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, race, caste, place of birth or whether they are female or male.
- Statement 3 is correct: Every person has access to all public places including playgrounds, hotels, shops and markets. All persons can use publicly available wells, roads and bathing ghats.
- Statement 4 is correct: The Article 17 abolishes “untouchability” and forbids its practice in any form.
Consider the following statements:
1. The midday meal scheme has helped the government in implementing the equality that is guaranteed in the Constitution.
2. Kerala was the first state in India to introduce the midday meal scheme.
Which of the following is/are correct?
- Statement 1 is correct: The two ways in which the government has tried to implement the equality that is guaranteed in the Constitution is first through laws and second through government programmes or schemes to help disadvantaged communities. The midday meal scheme is one the ways by which government has tried to implement the equality that is guaranteed in the Constitution.
- Statement 2 is incorrect: Tamil Nadu was the first state in India to introduce this scheme. It was introduced in 1956 by Tamil Nadu’s Chief Minister K. Kamraj.
Consider the incorrect statement about the Constituent Assembly:
- In 1946, nearly 389 members of the constituent Assembly who belonged to different parties from different places came together to frame the Constitution of India. Th e Assembly consisted of 389 members representing Provinces (292), States (93), the Chief Commissioner’s provinces (3) and Baluchistan (1)
- The Drafting committee was formed with eight members and its Chairman was B.R. Ambedkar; B.N.Rao was appointed as an advisor. The committee met for the first time on 9th December 1946. On the same day, the drafting of constitution of India started
- 15 women members were in the Constituent Assembly
Consider the following statements:
1. The Judicial Review has helped in maintaining the harmony between Parliamentary Sovereignty and a written Constitution in India.
2. The independent judiciary in India with the power of judicial review is a prominent feature of Indian constitution.
Which of the following is/are incorrect?
Subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament or any rules made by the Supreme Court under Article 145, the Supreme Court has the power to review any judgment pronounced or made by it. The independent judiciary in India with the power of judicial review is a prominent feature of our constitution. The harmonization which our Constitution has effected between Parliamentary Sovereignty and a written Constitution with a provision for Judicial Review is a remarkable achievement of the framers of our Constitution.