Answer : C
Answer : d
Besides these two sources, the dramas written by Harsha, namely Ratnavali, Nagananda and Priyardarsika also provide useful information.
The Madhuben plate inscription and the Sonpat inscription are also helpful to know the chronology of Harsha. The Banskhera inscription contains the signature of Harsha
The founder of the family of Harsha was Pushyabhuti. Pushyabhutis were the feudatories of the Guptas.
They called themselves Vardhanas. After the Hun invasions they assumed independence. The first important king of Pushyabhuti dynasty was Prabhakaravardhana.
His capital was Thaneswar, north of Delhi. He assumed the title Maharajadhiraja and Paramabhattaraka.
Prabhakarvardhana had two sons, Rajyavardhana and Harshavardhana and a daughter Rajyasri. He married his daughter to the Maukhari king Grahavarman.
Answer : b
He appointed his brother Vishnuvardhana as Yuvaraja to govern that country. Thus, begin the line of the Chalukyas of Vengi or Eastern Chalukyas.
However, Pulakesin’s second invasion of the Pallava territory ended in failure. The Pallava King Narasimhavarman I (630-668 C.E.) occupied the Chalukya capital at Vatapi in about 642 C.E., when Pulakesin II was probably killed in fight against the Pallavas.
Hiuen Tsang, the Chinese pilgrim visited the kingdom of Pulakesin in about 641 A.D. Pulakesin, during his rule of 33 years, encouraged art and architecture, promoted religion and learning. His court poet Ravi Kirti wrote his eulogy in the Aihole inscription.
Answer : d
Harsha now succeeded his brother at Thaneswar. In his first expedition, Harsha drove out Sasanka from Kanauj. On acquiring Kannauj, Harsha united the two kingdoms of Thanesar and Kannauj. He moved his capital to Kannauj.
In his early life, Harsha was devoted to Shiva but later he became an ardent Mahayana Buddhist under the influence of Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang.
Hiuen Tsang visited India during Harsha’s reign. He has given a very favourable account of king Harsha and his empire. He praises his generosity and justice.
Answer : B
The Chinese travelers of ancient India mentioned a number of educational institutions. The most famous among them were the Hinayana University of Valabhi and the Mahayana University of Nalanda. The term Nalanda means “giver of knowledge”. The professors of the University were called panditas.
Nalanda University was a residential university and education was free including the boarding and lodging. It was maintained with the revenue derived from 100 to 200 villages endowed by different rulers.
Though it was a Mahayana University, different religious subjects like the Vedas, Hinayana doctrine, Sankhya and Yoga philosophies were also taught. In addition to that, general subjects like logic, grammar, astronomy, medicine and art were in the syllabus.
It attracted students not only from different parts of India but from different countries of the east. Admission was made by means of an entrance examination. More than lectures, discussion played an important part and the medium of instruction was Sanskrit.
Answer : A
Pulakesin I (550-566) was the real founder of the Chalukya dynasty of Badami. He made Badami or Vatapi as his capital. He adopted the title Vallabheshvara and performed the ashvamedha.
He was succeeded by Kirtivarman I (566-597) who further extended the kingdom. He invaded the territories of Bihar and Bengal in the north and the Chola – Pandya regions in the South.
With the expeditions of Pulakesin II, the Chalukyas became the paramount power in the Deccan. The army of Pulakesin II checked the forces of Harshavardhana on the banks of the Narmada. His first expedition against the Pallava kingdom, which was then ruled by Mahendravarman I was a complete success, and he annexed Vengi, the northern most territory of the Pallavas, lying between the mouths of the Krishna and Godavari.
The view that the Pallavas were the natives of Tondaimandalam itself was widely accepted by scholars. When Tondaimandalam was conquered by the Satavahanas, the Pallavas became their feudatories.
After the fall of the Satavahanas in the third century A.D., they became independent. The Pallavas issued their earlier inscriptions in Prakrit and Sanskrit because of their Satavahana connections, and also patronized Brahmanism.
The Pallavas established their kingdom in Tondaimandalam with its capital at Kanchipuram. Later they were annexed by the Imperial Cholas in the beginning of the tenth century C.E.
The Chalukya administration was highly centralized unlike that of the Pallavas and the Cholas. Village autonomy was absent under the Chalukyas.
The Chalukyas had a great maritime power. Pulakesin II had 100 ships in his navy. They also had a small standing army.
The Badami Chalukyas were Brahmanical Hindus but they gave respect to other religions. Importance was given to Vedic rites and rituals. The founder of the dynasty Pulakesin I performed the asvamedha sacrifice.
A number of temples in honour of Vishnu, Siva and other gods were also built during this period. Hiuen Tsang mentioned about the decline of Buddhism in western Deccan. But Jainism was steadily on the path of progress in this region. Ravikirti, the court poet of Pulakesin II who composed the Aihole inscription was a Jain.
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