WHY IN NEWS?
The Nobel Prize 2021 for physics was awarded to three scientists from Japan, Germany and Italy. Secretary-general of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Goran Hansson, announced the winners on October 5, 2021
Demonstration by Syukuro Manabe
Since 1960s, he had demonstrated how increases in amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases the global temperatures. This demonstration laid the foundations for current climate models.
Demonstration by Klaus Hasselmann
He had created a model to link weather and climate. This model helped in explaining why climate models can be reliable despite the chaotic nature of weather. He also demonstrated ways to look after specific signs of human influence on the climate.
Model developed by Giorgio Parisi
He built a deep physical and mathematical model. This model made it possible to understand the complex systems in fields of mathematics, machine learning, biology and neuroscience.
In the year 2020, the prize was conferred to Andrea Ghez from America, Roger Penrose from Britain and Reinhard Genzel from Germany for their research into black holes.
About Nobel Prize
The award comes with a gold medal as well as 10 million Swedish kronor. Money for prize comes from a bequest left by the creator of prize & Swedish inventor, Alfred Nobel.
WHY IN NEWS?
Ministry of road, transport & highways launched a scheme for “Good Samaritans”.
National Level Awards
What is golden hour?
‘Golden hour’ is the 1-hour time period after a traumatic injury. During this period, there is the highest possibilities of preventing death by providing prompt medical care.
Motor Vehicle Amendment Act, 2019
Rules had been notified under Section 134A of the Motor Vehicle Amendment Act 2019, on September 29, 2020 by the ministry.
WHY IN NEWS?
A team of Indian scientists have developed a non-toxic, environmentally friendly, biodegradable polymer using guar gum and chitosan.
Polysaccharide is one of the biopolymers having high potential for use in synthesis of packaging material. But due to some drawbacks of polysaccharides, like low mechanical properties, low barrier properties and high water-solubility, they are not preferred for packaging materials.
Guar gum-chitosan composite film
To overcome the challenges associated with polysaccharide, the team of scientists fabricated a guar gum-chitosan composite film. It is a cross-linked polysaccharide that do not use any plasticizer with the help “solution casting method”.
Properties of the film
The Fabricated biopolymer composite film had high water stability, high mechanical strength as well as excellent resistance towards harsh environmental conditions. The fabricated cross-linked film is not easily soluble in water. As per scientists, it did not dissolve even after 240 hours. Furthermore, the mechanical strength is higher compared to general biopolymer. It is highly water repellent or hydrophobic because of its high contact angle of 92.8º. Water vapor permeability is low as compared to the film made only from chitosan.
WHY IN NEWS?
Ministry of Textiles has approved the continuation of Comprehensive Handicrafts Cluster Development Scheme (CHCDS).
Aim of the scheme
CHCDS schemes was launched to create world-class infrastructure which will caters to the business needs of local artisans & SMEs in order to boost production and export. These clusters have been set with the objective of assisting the artisans & entrepreneurs in setting up world-class units with modern infrastructure, adequate training, latest technology, and human resource development inputs. It is also coupled with market linkages and production diversification.
Provisions under CHCDS
Under CHCDS, interventions such as Baseline Survey & Activity Mapping, Skill Training, Marketing events, Improved Tool Kits, Publicity, Seminars, capacity building, Design workshops, etc will be provided. Scheme will also provide for Emporiums, Common Facility Centres, Raw Material Banks, Trade Common Production Centres, Facilitation Centres, Design & Resource Centres.
Who will undertake the projects?
Integrated projects will be taken up for development with the help of Central or State Handicrafts Corporations, Autonomous body Council Institute, Registered Co- operatives, Registered SPV, Producer company of artisans, that are having good experience in handicrafts sector.
Focus of the projects
These products will focus on integration of scattered artisans, building grass root level enterprises for them and linking them to SMEs in the handicrafts sector in order to ensure economies of scale. Mega handicraft clusters comprising of 10,000 artisans will be selected for overall development under the scheme
WHY IN NEWS?
The Ministry of Tourism is organising a “Buddhist Circuit Train FAM Tour and Conference from October 4 to October 8, 2021 in a bid to tap the potential of the Buddhist tourism.
Buddhist Tourism in India
India is among world’s largest reservoirs of history, culture, heritage, philosophy, and religion. With these reservoirs, India is counted amongst the most desired destinations for tourists as well as pilgrims. India has a rich ancient Buddhist Heritage comprising of important sites associated with Lord Buddha. Indian Buddhist heritage is of great interest for the followers of Buddhism across the world. It has remained an inspiration & guide to traditions and customs of India.
Buddhist Conclave is organised by Ministry of Tourism every alternate year. It is organised with the objective of promoting India as a Buddhist Destination and major markets worldwide. In the year 2021, the International Buddhist Conclave is scheduled from November 17 to 21.
Other initiatives by Ministry of Tourism
WHY IN NEWS?
The Indian Navy and The Japan maritime Self-Defence Force is scheduled to start the Fifth edition of India – Japan Maritime Bilateral Exercise called in the Arabian Sea.
Aim of the JIMEX-21
JIMEX-21 is being conducted with the aim of developing a common understanding of operational procedures and enhancing an inter-operability by conducting a multitude of advanced exercises, in the entire spectrum of maritime operations. These multi-faceted tactical exercises will consolidate the coordination developed by both the navies.
About JIMEX Exercise
JIMEX series of exercises was started in January 2012. It mainly focuses on maritime security cooperation. These exercises are conducted between Indian Navy and Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force, biennially.
Other Military Exercises between both the countries
Besides JIMEX, India and Japan conduct a joint land military exercise called ‘Dharma Guardian’, annually. They also conduct a Joint Air Force exercise called ‘Shinyuu Maitri’. India and Japan are also involved in a Trilateral Maritime Exercise called Malabar with the USA.
WHY IN NEWS?
Union Health Minister, Mansukh Mandaviya, released a report titled “The State of the World’s Children 2021: On My Mind: promoting, protecting and caring for children’s mental health” on October 5, 2021 in New Delhi. The state of World’s Children 2021 report is UNICEF’s global flagship publication.
The State of the World’s Children 2021 report
This report examines the mental health of child, adolescent and caregiver. It focuses on risks and protective factors at critical moments if life course. It also digs into the social determinants which ultimately shape mental health and well-being. The report also calls for commitment, communication and action in order to promote good mental health for every child. It also seeks to protect vulnerable children and care for children facing the challenges.
Findings of the report
WHY IN NEWS?
Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has proposed an amendment to the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, in a bid to liberalise the forest laws.
Status of the amendments
Ministry has sent the proposed amendments to all the state governments, asking for their objections and suggestions within 15 days. The draft proposal will be drawn and placed before Parliament after taking suggestions from states into consideration.
Forest (Conservation) Act (FCA)
FCA was promulgated in the year 1980. Before a “1996 Supreme Court judgement” in TN Godavarman Thirumulpad versus Union of India & Others case, forest land was defined by “1927 Forest Act”. But in the 1996 case, Supreme court included all areas under the definition of forest that are recorded as ‘forest’ under any government record.
Why this amendment was put forward?
The definition of forest under the forest act was problematic in case of railways and roads. There is land that both the ministries own, but they cannot use it without getting permission from the MoEFCC. These permissions are granted in about 2-4 years, causing delays in several projects.
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