Who has become the first Chinese woman to walk in space?
WHY IN NEWS?
Astronaut Wang Yaping has become the first Chinese woman to walk in space.
- As a part of ongoing construction, team of Wang Yaping completed a six-hour stint outside Tiangong space station.
- Wang and her colleague Zhai Zhigang stepped out of Tiangong on November 7, 2021. They installed a suspension device and transfer connectors. This was the first extravehicular activity of Shenzhou-13 crew. They will spend six months at the space station.
- Tiangong, means heavenly palace, is the latest achievement in China’s move to become a major space power.
- China has landed a rover on Mars and is sending several probes to the Moon.
- Core module of the Tiangong entered orbit earlier in 2021. This station is expected to be operational by 2022.
- Tiangong is expected to operate for around 10 years.
What is the work of crew?
Their work includes setting up equipment and testing technology for future construction.
Mission commander Zhai is the former fighter pilot, who performed the first spacewalk of China in 2008. The previous crew, who made first mission to Tiangong Space Station, returned back to Earth in September 2021. They spent three months there.
Tiangong is a space station being constructed in low Earth orbit by China. It is being constructed between 340 and 450 km above the surface. It is China’s first long-term space station. Construction of the space station is the goal of “Third Step” of the China Manned Space Program. It will have a mass between 80t and 100t, which is about one-fifth the mass of International Space Station. First module, Tianhe core module, was launched on April 29, 2021.
Which article of the constitution guarantees no birthplace-based discrimination in public employment?
WHY IN NEWS?
Recently, the Haryana Government has said that the Employment of Local Candidates Act, 2020 will be implemented in the state from 15th January 2022.
About the Law:
- It requiresfirms with 10 or more employees to reserve 75% of all jobs offering a salary of less than Rs. 30,000 a month for eligible candidates of State domicile.
- Jobs will be provided in variouscompanies, societies, trusts, and limited liability partnership firms situated in the state.
- The move is aimed at disallowing the influx of talent from other parts of the countryeven in sectors like IT and IT-enabled services (ITes), which the State does not have enough captive supply of.
- The law will be applicable for a period of 10 years.
- The state government also relaxed the residency (domicile) requirement from 15 to 5 yearsfor a person to get a bona fide resident certificate in the state to provide some flexibility to the private companies in hiring.
- It will be mandatory for all these employers to register all their employees drawing gross monthly salary or wages not more than Rs 30,000 on the designated portal available on the official website of the Labour Department, Haryana.
- Violation of any provision of this Actwill be a punishable offence.
- Can Trigger Exodus of Investors:
- It could trigger an exodus of large domestic and multinational investors across sectors such as auto, IT that rely on highly skilled manpower.
- Affect Existing Industries:
- Raising the son of the soil issue and preventing free movement of manpower resources in the State from other regions can have an adverse effect on the existing industries in the State.
- This may force those tech giants and other industries to shift their base from Haryana to other States and drain out the State’s monetary resources to that extent.
- Can Cause Extreme Talent Crunch:
- Moreover, imposing the reservations on gig and platform companies could create a crippling talent crunch.
- Against the Constitution:
- The Constitution of India guarantees freedom of movement and consequently employment within India through several provisions.
- Article 14 provides for equality before law irrespective of place of birth.
- Article 15 guards against discrimination based on place of birth.
- Article 16 guarantees no birthplace-based discrimination in public employment.
- Article 19 ensures that citizens can move freely throughout the territory of India.
Other Such Attempts:
- AAP (Political Party) chief has promised 80% reservations for locals in private jobs in poll-bound Goa and he made a similar promise for Uttarakhand too.
- This follows in the footsteps of states like Haryana, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Andhra and Madhya Pradesh that have already implemented or tried to implement similar populist policies.
Reasons Behind Such Legislations:
- Vote Bank Politics: Inter-state migrant workers (ISMW) constitute a sizeable “under-used or un-used” electorate as they often do not exercise voting rights. If these workers and potential migrants could be retained through Job For Locals Legislations (JRFL) and provided with jobs, the parties’ electoral causes will be served.
- Economic Sluggishness: The native unemployment issue assumes relevance as joblessness has intensified in the context of shrinking government employment.
- Increased Incomes and Talent: Job For Locals Legislations will not only retain talent but also incomes which otherwise will go to “other regions”.
- Precondition for Land Acquisition: Farmers and villagers, who lose their land in the process of land acquisition for industries, keep such preconditions in which industries have to provide jobs to local youth.
- The Haryana government should consider lowering the original salary ceiling of Rs. 30,000 a month to Rs. 15,000 a month on a ‘cost to company’ basis and raise it in tandem with efforts to improve skill sets in the State. The reservation, if any, should begin from 20%-25% as technical and specialised skill sets will take time to inculcate among the State’s youth.
Which railways in India are declared as World Heritage Sites?
WHY IN NEWS?
Recently, India has finally registered the logos (two) of the iconic ‘Toy Train’ internationally as its intellectual property.
- The claim for registration was sent to the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) with the procedure laid down in WIPO’s Vienna Classification (VCL). There is a six-month window to register any counter-claims, following which the Indian government’s claim will receive international approval.
- The use of these logos anywhere in the world will now require written permission from India and the payment of a fee.
- TheDHR has two logos, both of which have been patented. The process of registering the logo with the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trademarks under the Union Ministry of Commerce and Industry was initiated in August 2021. It was then sent to the WIPO.
- Both logos are over a century old, and popular in world heritage circuits.
- They are used randomly on merchandise and communications materials by various commercial organisations in Europe, the UK and the US; even the West Bengal government has used it in communications and on merchandise in the past.
- Significance: This will put the Darjeeling Toy Train’s ‘Iron Sherpa’ blue steam locomotives on the same pedestal as the legendary transalpine Rhaetian Railway in Switzerland, and is likely to boost its recognition and prominence around the world.
- DHR was built in the British era between 1879 and 1881.
- It is located in the foothills of the Himalayas in West Bengal.
- It is the most outstanding example of a hill passenger railway. Its design applies bold and ingenious engineering solutions to the problem of establishing an effective rail link across a mountainous terrain of great beauty.
- It was declared a UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) World Heritage Site in 1999.
Other Mountain Railways Declared as World Heritage Sites:
- Nilgiri Mountain Railways located in the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu (South India) (2005)
- Kalka Shimla Railway located in the Himalayan foothills of Himachal Pradesh (Northwest India) (2008).
Consider the following statements: 1. Kaho is the first village from the China border in Himachal Pradesh. 2. According to the 2011 census, Kaho has only 650 residents. Which of the above statements are correct?
WHY IN NEWS?
Arunachal Pradesh is planning to make a documentary on Kaho, a village on the China border to mark the 75th year of Independence.
- Kaho is the first village from the China border in Anjaw district.
- Anjaw is one of the 11 districts of Arunachal Pradesh that share their border with China.
- According to the 2011 census, Kaho has only 65 residents and a literacy rate of 64.15%.
- A documentary on the village and the locals who belong to the Meyor tribe will be made.
- Meyor is a small tribe constituting a small population that dwells in Kibithoo and Walong circles of the district.
- Meyors are also animists like the Mishmis but they have also adopted Mahayana Buddhism.
- All tribes of Arunachal Pradesh include: Abor, Aka, Apatani, Dafla, Galong, Khampti, Khowa, Mishmi, Monpa, Momba, Any Naga tribes, Sherdukpen, Singpho”.
- One of seven villages in the Kibithoo block bisected by the Lohit river, Kaho had weathered the Chinese attack in 1962. Its people had assisted the Indian soldiers who had been outnumbered.
- It is a tributary to the Brahmaputra River.
- Brahmaputra River originates under the name of Siang or Dihang, from the Chemayungdung glacier of the Kailash range near the Mansarovar lake (Tibet). It enters India west of Sadiya town in Arunachal Pradesh.
- It originates in eastern Tibet, in the Zayal Chu range and surges through Arunachal Pradesh for 200 km, before reaching in the plains of Assam.
An ancient idol of Goddess Annapurna was brought back to India recently from which country?
WHY IN NEWS?
Recently, an ancient idol of Goddess Annapurna was brought back to India after over a century from Canada.
- The Idol was received by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). It will be placed in its original location – the Kashi Vishwanath temple.
- This idol was smuggled out of the country somewhere around 1913.
- Goddess Annapurna: She is the goddess of food. She is also known as the manifestation of the goddess Parvati, partner to Lord Shiva.
- The idol holds a bowl of kheer in one hand and a spoon in the other.
- Benares Style: The 18th-century idol, carved in the Benares style, was part of the collection at the MacKenzie Art Gallery at the University of Regina, Canada.
- Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras or Kashi or Kasi, is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the rich cultural tradition of Varanasi that makes it the cultural capital of India.
- Kashi Vishwanath Temple: It is one of the most famous Hindu temples dedicated to Lord Shiva.
- It is located in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.
- The temple stands on the western bank of the river Ganga, and is one of the twelve Jyotirlingas, the holiest of Shiva temples.
- It was constructed in the year 1780 by the Maratha monarch, Maharani Ahilyabai Holkar of Indore.
According to Women and Child Ministry, there are more than _____malnourished children in India.
WHY IN NEWS
According to Women and Child Ministry, there are more than 33 lakh malnourished children in India. This figure was reported from Poshan tracker, on which numbers are directly entered by anganwadis and are accessed by the Central government.
- Ministry further notes that, more than half of the children are in the severely malnourished category.
- Maharashtra, Bihar and Gujarat are topping the list.
- As per estimate, there are 17,76,902 severely acute malnourished (SAM) children and 15,46,420 moderately acute malnourished (MAM) children in India, as of October 14, 2021. These numbers were registered on Poshan tracker app, which was developed in 2020 as a governance tool for monitoring the nutritional outcomes in real-time.
- In between November 2020 and October 14, 2021, 91 per cent increase was seen in the number of Severely acute malnourished children. The number has increased from 9,27,606 to 17.76 lakh now.
Definition of SAM and MAM
As per World Health Organisation, SAM is defined as very low weight-for-height or the mid-upper arm circumference lesser than 115 mm, or presence of nutritional oedema while MAM is defined as moderate wasting or mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) greater than 115 mm but less than 125 mm.
Impact of SAM and MAM
Children suffering from SAM have low weight for their height. They are nine times more likely to die due to diseases because of their weakened immune system. Children suffering from MAM are at increased risk of mortality and morbidity during childhood.