WHY IN NEWS?
Indian Army is set to conduct the sixth edition of the biennial training exercise with French Army from November 15, 2021, in series of joint training exercises with friendly nations.
Significance of the exercise
The Shakti 2021 exercise will focus on Counter Terrorism operations in light of semi-urban terrain under the mandate of United Nations. It will be conducted with the aim of enhancing military cooperation and inter-operability between the armies of both the country.
Last edition of Shakti exercise
The last edition of the Shakti exercise was organised in the year 2019, at the Foreign Training Node in Mahajan Field Firing Ranges, Rajasthan. In this edition of the exercise, armies practised and validated the Counter Terrorism operations in semi-desert terrain.
Gorkha Rifles contingent
Indian Army is being represented by Gorkha Rifles contingent. It has a rich heritage which is marked by its military valour and supreme sacrifices. It has a glorious history of 68 years. The contributions of contingent in 1971 war were recognised by Theatre Honour of Jammu & Kashmir and Battle Honour Shingo River Valley.
French Army contingent
The French Army contingent was set up in 1831 under the name ‘2nd Marine Regiment’. It was later renamed as 21st Marine Infantry Regiment in 1901. It has an illustrious operational history of 120 years. The contingent has participated in all the major wars of French Army.
WHY IN NEWS?
Chief Minister of Punjab, Charanjit Singh Channi, announced that Punjabi will now be a compulsory subject for all students in the state of Punjab.
What are those bills?
This announcement was made by CM, a day after the state legislative assembly passed 15 bills on November 11, 2021. Two bills were related to the Punjabi language namely, Punjab State Language Amendment Bill, 2021 and Punjabi & Other Languages Education (Amendment) Bill, 2021.
Punjabi & Other Languages Education (Amendment) Bill, 2021
Under this bill, Punjabi language will be made a compulsory subject in schools. In case of violation, it has set a fine of ₹2 lakh.
Punjab State Language Amendment Bill, 2021
The bill directs that all official business shall be conducted in Punjabi. In case of violation, a penalty of Rs 500, Rs 2000 and Rs 5000 will be imposed respectively for first, second and third violations.
State government announced this move in the backdrop of recent announcement by Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) to move status of Punjabi language from ‘major subject’ to ‘minor subject’. CBSE had classified all the regional languages as ‘minor subjects’ for first-term exams of 10th and 12th classes.
WHY IN NEWS?
At the recent G20 Summit, the International Methane Emissions Observatory (IMEO) was launched.
About International Methane Emissions Observatory (IMEO)
Launched by: UN Environment Programme (UNEP) with support from the European Union
Objective of the IMEO
The observatory aims to provide credible data to track countries progress on meeting methane reduction pledges and to promote best practice.
It will initially focus on methane emissions from the fossil fuel sector and then expand to other major emitting sectors like agriculture and waste.
It will also monitor commitments made by countries in the Global Methane Pledge, a US- and EU-led effort to slash methane emissions by 30% by 2030.
WHY IN NEWS?
According to a study, India’s Singhbhum region may have been Earth’s earliest continental land to rise above the ocean 3.2 billion years ago.
The researchers studied the granites that form the continental crust of Singhbhum region. Scientists found sandstones in Singhbhum region with geological signatures of ancient river channels, tidal plains and beaches over 3.2 billion years old.
What are the key findings of the study?
Earth’s first landmass emerged 3.2 billion years ago: Currently, a widely accepted view is that the continents rose from the oceans about 2.5 billion years ago. However, the study has suggested that this has happened 700 million years earlier which is about 3.2 billion years ago.
Moreover, the earliest continental landmass to emerge may have been Jharkhand’s Singhbhum region.
Earth’s earliest continents emerged from massive outbursts of magma: The study has also challenged another well-accepted notion that continents rose above the ocean due to plate tectonics.
According to the study, Earth’s earliest continents emerged not through plate tectonic processes but from massive outbursts of magma that hardened into continental crust.
WHY IN NEWS?
As part of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav, Government of India has said that a programme on “Nutrition Smart Village” will be initiated to strengthen the Poshan Abhiyan.
About Nutrition Smart Village Programme
As part of the programme, a total of 75 villages will be adopted by All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) centres and Indian Council of Agricultural Research – Central Institute for Women in Agriculture (ICAR-CIWA).
The Programme is in line with the Prime Minister’s call to adopt and transform 75 villages.
Objectives of the Programme
–To promote nutritional awareness.
– To promote Education and behavioral change in rural areas involving farm women and school children
– To harness traditional knowledge through the local recipe to overcome malnutrition and
– To implement nutrition-sensitive agriculture through homestead agriculture and Nutri-garden.
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