February 25, 2024

HPAS/ N.T. Allied Mains 2022-23 Answer Writing Challenge: Model Answer

Question: What is Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)?  List out the features &  advantages of CBDC? (8 marks, 120 words)



  • CBDC is a legal tender issued by the RBI in digital form.
  • It is the same as the fiat currency, and is exchangeable one-to-one with the fiat currency.
  • Only its form is different — it is not paper (or polymer) like physical cash.

The features of CBDC include:

  • CBDC is sovereign currency issued by Central Banks in alignment with their monetary policy
  • It appears as a liability on the central bank’s balance sheet
  • Must be accepted as a medium of payment, legal tender, and a safe store of value by all citizens, enterprises, and government agencies.
  • Freely convertible against commercial bank money and cash
  • Fungible legal tender for which holders need not have a bank account
  • Expected to lower the cost of issuance of money and transactions

CBDCs have some clear advantages over other digital payments systems-

  • It is a sovereign currency, ensures settlement finality and thus reduces settlement risk in the financial system
  • CBDCs could also potentially enable a more real-time, cost-effective seamless integration of cross border payment systems
  • India has made impressive progress in innovation in digital payments
  • The payment systems are available 24X7, 365 days a year to both retail and wholesale customers, they are largely real-time
  • the cost of transaction is perhaps the lowest in the world
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