HPAS/Allied Mains 2022 Answer Writing Challenge Day 32: Model Answer
Question: What are the factors responsible for biodiversity decline in Himachal Pradesh ? ( 8 marks, 120 words )
|Understanding of question:
|What : to give main characteristics or features of the topic
|Factors responsible for biodiversity decline in Himachal Pradesh
Biodiversity or biological diversity is the variability within and between all microorganism plants and animals both wild and domesticated and the ecological system which they co- exist and inhabit. Biodiversity is also known as biological diversity. Biodiversity is the variety of all species on our planet. It includes different plants, animals, birds and micro-organisms, their genes, their habitats and all the ecosystems (forests, grass-lands, lacks, ponds, rivers, wetlands etc.).The term “biological diversity” was first used in year 1980 by Lovejoy (most commonly used to describe the number of species). It is the one of the greatest wealth of the planet.
Himachal Pradesh is bestowed with distinctive floral and faunal biodiversity having aesthetic, cultural, commercial and genetic values. It is a mountainous state and have vast repository of flora and fauna. variable treasures of the biological resources are because of its varied topography, geological formations and ranges and climatic conditions.
Factors responsible for biodiversity decline in Himachal Pradesh:
Biodiversity of Himachal Pradesh is becoming threatened due to biotic and abiotic factors in the absence of perspective strategic action plans for conservation of the biological resources. Many species have critically a low population which is further being affected by catastophies or over exploitation leading to the elimination of species.
There are some factors which are responsible for biodiversity decline in state:
- Agro horticulture: Himachal is primarily an agro horticulture state, 90% of population dependent upon these primary sector activities so to enhance the agricultural land areas forest are cut down. and increase the vulnearbility of flora and fauna, loss of habitat, more stress given to commercial crops, ang ignoring other crops, which imbalance the micro- organisms level in the soil.
- Climate change: Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years). Climate change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather within the context of longer-term average conditions. Due to rise in temp. in the himalayan state avg. temp rises. animals who survive in cold weather left with no option, snowfall which is imp. for apple production also reduced and it also hamper the tourism in the state.
- Global warming: Due to global warming glaciers are melting and rivers of state have glacial origin became flood prone and and the organism in the rivers like fishes, prawns ,frog etc. sometime washed away and died. It also hamper the hydro potential of the state which is also one of the main earning resource for the state. It is also becoming a major cause for loss of biodiversity. For example if the present rate of global warming continues, coral reefs which are biodiversity hotspots will disappear in 20-40 years. 10% of all species might become extinct by 2015, if global warming continues.
- Imbalance b/w dev. and environment: unscruplous harvesting of forest resources and insufficient measures to regenerate the resources. roads, houses, parks are developed by compromising the environment
- Lack of awareness: awareness among the people who matter most ,the people who living in the periphery of forest like tribal people sell forest product on commercial level. cutting of the trees to extract their roots, people also use fertilizer inappropriately and reduce the fertility of soil which leads to decline in production ,loss to economy.
Steps to be taken :
- Effecting implementation of programme through unique linkages, including with civil society and local government institutions and through public private partnership.
- Engineering new and innovative forms of market, regulatory and voluntary mechanisms to promote sustainable development.
- Create awareness among folk to sustainably use resources.
- Proactive role of the governance and citizen to protect biodiversity.
Thus biodiversity which is crucial for the well being of life on earth, is coming under the threat of many factors related to human activities. There is an urgent need to take action to protect the magnificent biodiversity of our planet. We must create economic policies in order to maintain the Earth’s biodiversity and take appropriate measures to protect habitats and species.