March 1, 2024

HPAS/Allied Mains 2022 Answer Writing Challenge Day 288: Model Answer

Question: Define the term ‘Industrial Revolution’. Discuss critically socioeconomic impacts of Industrial Revolution in Europe. (8 marks/120 words)

Answer.

Industrial Revolution, in modern history, means the process of change from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing. The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban.

Social and economic changes that took place during the industrial revolution in Europe.

A lot of socio-economic change took place during the Industrial Revolution. It changed the character and culture of people in the whole world.

  • Population Explosion: Advancement in technology and better agricultural production led to better medical facilities and greater employment which led to population explosion.
  • Development of Banking and Finance System: the middle class began opening up new factories for which they required financing and therefore, the banking and finance system began developing.
  • Status of Women: The Industrial Revolution marked a dramatic change for women as many of them entered the workforce for the first time. Women had to compete with men for jobs. Female factory workers often made only one-third as much as men.
  • Rising Middle Class: The middle-class men started owning factories, sent their male children to school and rose up in society due to an increase in wealth.
  • Urbanisation: People started moving to urban areas in search of better jobs in factories due to which these areas became highly populous with poor housing facilities.
  • The exploitation of resources: industrial Revolution made the production of goods easy and ready in much less time. Therefore, more and more goods began to be produced which led to the exploitation of resources.

The Industrial Revolution was a revolutionary experience. It also increased material wealth, extended life, and was a powerful force for social change. And therefore, there was more to the Industrial Revolution than a bunch of machines, it was not only a technological revolution but a social-economic revolution that changed the way people lived afterwards.

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