HPAS/Allied Mains 2022 Answer Writing Challenge Day 139 : Model Answer
QUESTION: Analyse the challenges of non-traditional security threats for India’s Foreign Policy. (8 marks/ 120 words)
Non-traditional security threats as those threats which are emanated by the non-state actors. Non-Traditional Security (NTS) threats, also called non-military threats. India’s foreign and security policy imperatives are underpinned by the desire to achieve sustained and inclusive economic growth.
The following are Non-Traditional security threats for India’s Foreign Policy:
- Poverty and Food security: Most of the world’s armed conflicts take place in sub-Saharan Africa, which is also the poorest region of the world. Two-thirds of people in India also live in poverty which could threaten the India’s security.
- Health epidemics: such as HIV-AIDS, bird flu, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) ,Covid-19 ,have rapidly spread across countries through migration, business, tourism and military operations. One country’s success or failure in limiting the spread of these diseases affects infections in other countries. It can severely affect the socio-economic aspects of the country.
- International Terrorism: Terrorism refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately. The terrorism involve hijacking planes or planting bombs in trains, cafes, markets etc.
- Migration: migration to seek a better life, especially better economic opportunities. This has created international political frictions. Kashmiri Pandits that fled the violence in the Kashmir Valley in the early 1990s are an example of an internally displaced community.
- Environment: India’s development trajectory has had to contend with increasing environmental challenge. E.g- Indian cities are ranked among the most polluted cities in the world.
- Organized crimes – national and transnational: Use of counterfeit currency, the finding of linkages between terrorists and underworld. E.g.- Mumbai terror attack
- Human Trafficking : Human trafficking threatens the security and dignity of trafficked victims. Economically poor states are most vulnerable for trafficking. Also, trafficking from neighbouring countries can pose a serious threats to India’s neighbourhood Policy.
- Information Security Issues: i.e. Data theft/cyber-attack, Confidentiality, Privacy. e.g Air India was subjected to a cyber-attack whereas the personal details of about 4.5 million customers were compromised.
Conclusion: The 21st century presents new paradigms to security and India must follow Holistic development approach in line with Sustainable Developmental Goals to deal with these non- traditional security threats.