March 1, 2024

HPAS/Allied Mains 2022 Answer Writing Challenge Day 42 : Model Answer

Question What is meant by October 1917 revolution in Russia? Critically access its legacy. (8 Marks 120 Words)


Understanding of question: 
IntroductionThe October Revolution of 1917 was a critical event in the collapse of Russian empire under Tsar Nicholas II and the rise of Marxian socialism under Lenin and Bolsheviks. Failure of the provisional government post February Revolution and distress caused due to WW-I were the main causes of October revolution. 
Main Body Positive outcomes

  1. After the Tsar’s abdication, Russia backed out of World War I.
  2. Countries across the globe were introduced to Karl Marx’s economic idea of communism; Russia formed  Soviet  Union  with  its  neighbouring  countries  such  as  Ukraine  and  Belarus, which  later incorporated parts of Europe and Asia.
  3. After  the  revolution,  Lenin  created  free  education  throughout  Russia  and  made  eight-hour working  day,  which  greatly improved  working  conditions. Three  years  later,  he  introduced  free universal healthcare.
  4. New Economic Policy of Lenin led to revival of agricultural production.
  5. Lenin  made  the  right  to  divorce,  right  to maternity  leave,  voting,  education,  standing  for  office and abortion all legal practices for women within Russia thus lowering gender inequality.

Negative Outcomes

  1. Curbs  on  freedom; for  example, total  control  on  media  including  newspaper,  cinema  and literature; restrictions on religion etc.
  2. It led to a broad division among the countries into Communist and Capitalist. o Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that ended Russia’s participation in WW-I, contained harsh terms, such as Russia giving up a massive part of her lands – having economic consequences.
  3. Stalin’s Five-Year Plan did not improve the living condition of the peasantry.
ConclusionOctober revolution was a critical step in turning the USSR into a world superpower. Communism gave the world an alternative to Capitalism and still influences countries like China, North Korea, Cuba, Vietnam, and Laos. The Soviet  Union created  records,  equally  relevant  today  in  wiping  out  poverty,  backwardness and  illiteracy,  in  establishing  equality  among  peoples  and  nationalities,  between  men  and women. 
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