March 1, 2024

HPAS Mains 2021/22 Answer Writing Challenge Day 36: 17-11-2021

HPAS Mains GS 2: International Relations

 

Question: India’s position in getting closer to permanent membership of UNSC. Explain.

                                                                                                                                                    20 Marks

Introduction

United Nation Security Council (UNSC) has primary responsibility, under the United Nations Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security. However, the UNSC has been criticised due to its undemocratic nature, misuse of veto powers, etc.

Thus, there is global consensus for UNSC reforms. In light of this, India too advocates for UNSC reforms and a place as a permanent member of UNSC.

Body

Why should India be granted permanent membership in UNSC :

  • India is the largest democracy, second-most populous country and 5th largest economy in the world.
  • India acquired the status of a Nuclear Weapons State in May 1998, which brought it to the equal footing of the existing permanent members of UNSC.
  • India is the undisputed leader of the third world countries, as reflected by its leadership role in the Non-Aligned Movement and G-77 grouping.
  • Historically, India has been the founding member of the UN and has been elected for seven terms for a two-year non-permanent member seat.
  • India contributes one of the largest military personnels in UN peace-keeping forces.
    India’s candidature is supported by 4 out of 5 permanent members, G4 grouping, and the majority of UNGA countries.
  • Recently, India has taken a proactive role in regional and global politics. For example, Quad initiative, SAGAR vision, International Solar Alliance etc.

Hurdles for India

  • India being the non-signatory to NPT and CTBT, is cited as the reason by the countries opposing India’s candidature.
  • China is the only permanent member of UNSC, opposing India’s inclusion into UNSC. Thus, uses veto power against India’s efforts to become a permanent member.
  • India is yet to prove its military prowess beyond the Indian Ocean region.
  • India heavily relies on weaponry imports from the US and Russia for its military requirements.
  • Poor performance in many socio-economic indicators like the Human Development Index diminishes India’s claim to leadership.

Conclusion

India’s international profile and capabilities make it a natural claimant to become a permanent member in UNSC. However, in order to have a more legitimate claim, India must address its socio-economic indicators and dependency on military imports.

 

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