December 8, 2023

HPAS Mains 2021/22 Answer Writing Challenge Day 22: 29-10-2021

HPAS Mains General Studies Paper 3: Measurement of economic development: Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI), Millennium Development Goals, Human Development Index (HDI) / Gender Development Index (GDI) / Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). Latest / Current Development Schemes / Initiatives / Institutional Changes (e.g. Swach Bharat Mission, Make in India, Digital India, Skill India, Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), National Institution for Transforming India (NITI) Ayog etc.).

Question : Start-up ecosystem in India is marred by certain challenges. What are these challenges? Also, bring out the limitations of measures taken by Govt. to promote start-ups in India. (20 marks, 400 Words)

Understanding of Question:
DirectiveStraightforward question
IntroductionProvide definition of start-ups
Main BodyChallenges faced by start-ups

  • Financial resources
  • Supporting infra- lack of incubators, science and tech parks, business development centres
  • Bureaucratic hurdles
  • Regulations
  • Revenue generation

Govt. initiatives

  • Startup india initiative
  • SETU
  • Fund of funds for start-ups
  • Tax sops
  • Self certification


  • Schemes’ definition of start-ups
  • Tax exemption is subjected to inter-ministerial board.
  • The labour laws can be abused
  • Some provisions seem vague
ConclusionConclude with significance of start-ups for development and stopping brain drain
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